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Last Edited: 12/8/14

Geocoding Resources

Geocoding and Use of Geocoded Data


Zip Codes




Books on GIS and Public Health


Select Articles on Geocoding

  • Accuracy and repeatability of commercial geocoding.  Whitsel EA, Rose KM, Wood JL, Henley AC, Liao D, Heiss G.  Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Nov 15;160(10):1023-9.
  • Accuracy of commercial geocoding: assessment and implications.  Whitsel EA, Quibrera PM, Smith RL, Catellier DJ, Liao D, Henley AC, Heiss G.  Epidemiol Perspect Innov. 2006 Jul 20;3:8.
  • An effective and efficient approach for manually improving geocoded data.  Goldberg DW, Wilson JP, Knoblock CA, Ritz B, Cockburn MG.  Int J Health Geogr. 2008 Nov 26;7:60.
  • Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation.  Henry KA, Boscoe FP.  Int J Health Geogr. 2008 Jan 23;7:3.
  • Geocoding addresses from a large population-based study: lessons learned.  McElroy JA, Remington PL, Trentham-Dietz A, Robert SA, Newcomb PA.  Epidemiology. 2003 Jul;14(4):399-407.
  • A Geocoding Best Practices Guide.  North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, Inc (NAACCR).  Written by Daniel Goldberg, University of Southern California GIS Research Laboratory.
  • Geographic bias related to geocoding in epidemiologic studies.  Oliver MN, Matthews KA, Siadaty M, Hauck FR, Pickle LW.  Int J Health Geogr. 2005 Nov 10;4:29.
  • On epidemiology and geographic information systems: a review and discussion of future directions.  Clarke KC, McLafferty SL, Tempalski BJ.  Emerg Infect Dis. 1996 Apr-Jun;2(2):85-92.
  • On the use of ZIP codes and ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) for the spatial analysis of epidemiological data.  Grubesic TH, Matisziw TC.  Int J Health Geogr. 2006 Dec 13;5:58.
  • Place, space, and health: GIS and epidemiology.  Krieger N.  Epidemiology. 2003 Jul;14(4):384-5.
  • Positional accuracy of geocoded addresses in epidemiologic research.  Bonner MR, Han D, Nie J, Rogerson P, Vena JE, Freudenheim JL.  Epidemiology. 2003 Jul;14(4):408-12. Erratum in: Epidemiology. 2003 Nov;14(6):736.
  • Positional accuracy of two methods of geocoding.  Ward MH, Nuckols JR, Giglierano J, Bonner MR, Wolter C, Airola M, Mix W, Colt JS, Hartge P.  Epidemiology. 2005 Jul;16(4):542-7.
  • Spatial confidentiality and GIS: re-engineering mortality locations from published maps about Hurricane Katrina.  Curtis AJ, Mills JW, Leitner M.  Int J Health Geogr. 2006 Oct 10;5:44.